Fibre optic cables are the medium to transfer the signal, in this case, a light wave in the infrared spectrum. Fibre optic signals are resistant to electromagnetic interference, another important advantage is the capability to transfer huge amounts of data up to hundreds of Gb/s, compared to conventional electrical signals via copper wires.
The construction of a fibre optic cable depends on the specific application, method of installation, the environment and the transmission distance.
The design components include:
- optional central element
- fibre optic
- protective tube
- optional reinforcement
- external cover
Depending on the number of sent fibre optic modes (waves), fibre optics are divided into single-mode and multi-mode.
Single-mode optic fibres are characterised by low dispersion and attenuation, making them suitable for transmission at long distances. Due to the minimum attenuation, in telecommunications a wavelength of 1550 nm (III transmission window) and 1310 nm (II transmission window) is used for transmission. Single-mode fibre optics allow transmission in xWDM technology, enabling throughput of Tib/s.
In fibre optic cables produced by TF Kable, single-mode fibre cables comply with the requirements of ITU-T: